3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol induces lysosomal membrane permeabilization-mediated apoptosis and inhibits autophagic flux in macrophages Academic Article uri icon


  • 3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-Ac-DON), the acetylated derivative of deoxynivalenol (DON), has been reported to be coexisted with DON in various cereal grains. Ingestion of grain-based food products contaminated by 3-Ac-DON might exert deleterious effects on the health of both humans and animals. However, the biological toxicity of 3-Ac-DON on macrophages and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the present study, we showed that RAW 264.7 macrophages treated with 0.75 or 1.50 μg/mL of 3-Ac-DON resulted in DNA damage and the related cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and cell death, activation of the ribotoxic stress and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses. The 3-Ac-DON-induced cell death was accompanied by a protective autophagy, because gene silencing of Atg5 using the small interfering RNA enhanced cell death. Results of further experiments revealed a role for lysosomal membrane permeabilization in the 3-Ac-DON triggered inhibition of autophagic flux. Additional work also showed that increased lysosomal biogenesis and leakage of cathepsin B (CTSB) from lysosomes to cytosol was critical for the 3-Ac-DON-induced cell death. Importantly, 3-Ac-DON-induced DNA damage and cell death were rescued by CA-074-me, a CTSB inhibitor. Collectively, these results indicated a critical role of lysosomal membrane permeabilization in the 3-Ac-DON-induced apoptosis of RAW 264.7 macrophages.

published proceedings

  • Environmental Pollution

altmetric score

  • 0.25

author list (cited authors)

  • Liu, N., Yang, Y., Chen, J., Jia, H., Zhang, Y., Jiang, D. a., Wu, G., & Wu, Z.

citation count

  • 11

complete list of authors

  • Liu, Ning||Yang, Ying||Chen, Jingqing||Jia, Hai||Zhang, Yunchang||Jiang, Da||Wu, Guoyao||Wu, Zhenlong

publication date

  • October 2020