Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with fetal mortality and morbidity. One of the most common causes of IUGR is placental insufficiency, including placental vascular defects, and mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, a high level of oxidative stress induces placental vascular lesions. Here, we evaluated the oxidative stress status, mitochondrial function, angiogenesis, and nutrient transporters in placentae of piglets with different birth weights: <500 g (L), 500–600 g (LM), 600–700 g (M), and >700 g (H). Results showed that placentae from the L group had higher oxidative damage, lower adenosine triphosphate and citrate synthase levels, and lower vascular density, compared to those from the other groups. Protein expression of angiogenic markers, including vascular endothelial cadherin, vascular endothelial growth factor A, and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1, was the lowest in the L group placentae compared to the other groups. In addition, the protein levels of glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT3 were downregulated in the L group, compared to the other groups. Furthermore, oxidative stress induced by H2O2 inhibited tube formation and migration in porcine vascular endothelial cells. Collectively, placentae for lower birth weight neonates are vulnerable to oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impaired angiogenesis.