Impacts of Amino Acids on the Intestinal Defensive System
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The intestine interacts with a diverse community of antigens and bacteria. To keep its homeostasis, the gut has evolved with a complex defense system, including intestinal microbiota, epithelial layer and lamina propria. Various factors (e.g., nutrients) affect the intestinal defensive system and progression of intestinal diseases. This review highlights the current understanding about the role of amino acids (AAs) in protecting the intestine from harm. Amino acids (e.g., arginine, glutamine and tryptophan) are essential for the function of intestinal microbiota, epithelial cells, tight junction, goblet cells, Paneth cells and immune cells (e.g., macrophages, B cells and T cells). Through the modulation of the intestinal defensive system, AAs maintain the integrity and function of the intestinal mucosa and inhibit the progression of various intestinal diseases (e.g., intestinal infection and intestinal colitis). Thus, adequate intake of functional AAs is crucial for intestinal and whole-body health in humans and other animals.
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Ren, W., Bin, P., Yin, Y., & Wu, G.
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