Excessive white fat accumulation in humans and other animals is associated with the development of multiple metabolic diseases. It is unknown whether dietary
L-arginine supplementation reduces lipid deposition in high fat diet-fed Nile tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus). Results
In the present study, we found that dietary supplementation with 1% or 2% arginine decreased the deposition and concentration of fats in the liver; the concentrations of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein in the serum; and the diameter of adipocytes in intraperitoneal adipose tissue. Compared with the un-supplementation control group, the hepatic activities of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase, and hepatic concentration of malondialdehyde were reduced but these for catalase and superoxide dismutase were enhanced by dietary supplementation with 2% arginine. Arginine supplementation reduced the total amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids, while increasing the total amounts of n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the liver. These effects of arginine were associated with reductions in mRNA levels for genes related to lipogenesis (sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1, acetyl-CoA carboxylase
α,stearoyl-CoA desaturase, and fatty acid synthase) but increases in mRNA levels for genes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 αand peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α). In addition, hepatic mRNA levels for Δ4 fatty acyl desaturase 2 and elongase 5 of very long-chain fatty acids were enhanced by arginine supplementation. Conclusion
These results revealed that dietary L-arginine supplementation to tilapia reduced high fat diet-induced fat deposition and fatty acid composition in the liver by regulating the expression of genes for lipid metabolism.