Use of alternative protein sources for fishmeal replacement in the diet of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Part I: effects of poultry by-product meal and soybean meal on growth, feed utilization, and health.
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Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets [containing 54, 30, 15, 10, and 5% fishmeal crude-protein (CP), dry matter (DM) basis] were prepared by replacing fishmeal with poultry by-product meal plus soybean meal to feed juvenile largemouth bass (LMB, with an initial mean body weight of 4.9 g) for 8 weeks. All diets contained 54% CP and 13% lipids. There were four tanks of fish per treatment group (15 fish/tank). The fish were fed twice daily with the same feed intake (g/fish) in all the dietary groups. Results indicated that the inclusion of 15% fishmeal protein in the diet is sufficient for LMB growth. However, some of the fish that were fed diets containing ≤ 15% fishmeal CP had black skin syndrome (characterized by skin darkening and retinal degeneration, as well as intestinal and liver atrophies and structural abnormalities). The concentrations of taurine, methionine, threonine and histidine in serum were reduced (P < 0.05) in fish fed the diets containing 5, 10 and 15% fishmeal CP, compared with the 30 and 54% fishmeal CP diets. Interestingly, the concentrations of tyrosine and tryptophan in serum were higher in fish fed diets with ≤ 15% fishmeal CP than those in the 54% fishmeal CP group. These results indicated that 15% fishmeal CP in the diet containing poultry by-product meal and soybean meal was sufficient for the maximum growth and feed efficiency in LMB but inadequate for their intestinal, skin, eye, and liver health. A reduction in dietary methionine and taurine content and the possible presence of antinutritional factors in the fishmeal replacements diets containing high inclusion levels of soybean meal may contribute to black skin syndrome in LMB. We recommend that the diets of juvenile LMB contain 30% fishmeal CP (DM basis).
author list (cited authors)
Li, X., Zheng, S., Ma, X., Cheng, K., & Wu, G.
complete list of authors
Li, Xinyu||Zheng, Shixuan||Ma, Xuekun||Cheng, Kaimin||Wu, Guoyao