Amino Acids in Cell Signaling: Regulation and Function
Additional Document Info
Amino acids are the main building blocks for life. Aside from their roles in composing proteins, functional amino acids and their metabolites play regulatory roles in key metabolic cascades, gene expressions, and cell-to-cell communication via a variety of cell signaling pathways. These metabolic networks are necessary for maintenance, growth, reproduction, and immunity in humans and animals. These amino acids include, but are not limited to, arginine, glutamine, glutamate, glycine, leucine, proline, and tryptophan. We will discuss these functional amino acids in cell signaling pathways in mammals with a particular emphasis on mTORC1, AMPK, and MAPK pathways for protein synthesis, nutrient sensing, and anti-inflammatory responses, as well as cell survival, growth, and development.