Contributions of Sodium-Hydrogen Exchanger 1 and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases to Enhanced Retinal Venular Constriction to Endothelin-1 in Diabetes. Academic Article uri icon


  • Diabetes elevates endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the vitreous and enhances constriction of retinal venules to this peptide. However, mechanisms contributing to ET-1-induced constriction of retinal venules are incompletely understood. We examined roles of sodium-hydrogen exchanger 1 (NHE1), protein kinase C (PKC), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and extracellular calcium (Ca2+) in retinal venular constriction to ET-1 and the impact of diabetes on these signaling molecules. Retinal venules were isolated from control pigs and pigs with streptozocin-induced diabetes for in vitro studies. ET-1-induced vasoconstriction was abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ and sensitive to c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor SP600125 but unaffected by extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor PD98059, p38 kinase inhibitor SB203580, or broad-spectrum PKC inhibitor G 6983. Diabetes (after 2 weeks) enhanced venular constriction to ET-1, which was insensitive to PD98059 and G 6983 but was prevented by NHE1 inhibitor cariporide, SB203580, and SP600125. In conclusion, extracellular Ca2+ entry and activation of JNK, independent of ERK and PKC, mediate constriction of retinal venules to ET-1. Diabetes activates p38 MAPK and NHE1, which cause enhanced venular constriction to ET-1. Treatments targeting these vascular molecules may lessen retinal complications in early diabetes.

published proceedings

  • Diabetes

altmetric score

  • 0.25

author list (cited authors)

  • Chen, Y., Ren, Y. i., Rosa, R. H., Kuo, L., & Hein, T. W.

citation count

  • 1

complete list of authors

  • Chen, Yen-Lin||Ren, Yi||Rosa, Robert H||Kuo, Lih||Hein, Travis W

publication date

  • October 2021