The Likelihood of Self-reporting Balance Problems in Those With Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease, Slow Gait Speed, or Low Vitamin D. Academic Article uri icon


  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D (25(OH)D) and balance deficits in persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the likelihood of self-reporting balance and falling problems, measured gait speed in persons with kidney disease, and low levels of vitamin D and albumin. DESIGN: Analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 data set. SUBJECTS: The study included 8,554 subjects aged >40years who were categorized into CKD stages based on the glomerular filtration rate (normal kidney function and stages 1 and 2 served as the control group, and stages 3 and 4/5 served as the CKD groups). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Measured 25(OH)D levels, timed 20-feet walk, Romberg standing balance task, and self-reported balance and falling issues. RESULTS: The prevalence of balance deficits was found to be high in this CKD sample, with fail rates increasing with kidney disease severity. Similarly, when examining the relationship between CKD stage and the measurement of balance, fail rates (impaired balance) increased and gait speed decreased with kidney disease severity. In addition, the likelihood of self-reporting a balance and falling problem in the past year was higher in persons who had advanced CKD, were of older age, were of female sex, were with former or current smoking status, had lower 25(OH)D levels, and had lower albumin levels. Similarly, the likelihood of having a 20-feet walk time of more than 8seconds was associated with those who were older, had higher body mass index, and had lower levels of 25(OH)D and albumin. CONCLUSION: The unique finding of this study is that increased reporting of balance and falling issues (both perceived and measured) and slower gait were found in persons with increased CKD severity and lower 25(OH)D status.

published proceedings

  • J Ren Nutr

altmetric score

  • 1

author list (cited authors)

  • Wickstrom, J. F., Sayles, H. R., Graeff-Armas, L. A., & Yentes, J. M.

citation count

  • 1

complete list of authors

  • Wickstrom, Jordan F||Sayles, Harlan R||Graeff-Armas, Laura A||Yentes, Jennifer M

publication date

  • November 2019