Visualization of Retinal Blood Vessels. Chapter uri icon


  • The retina offers a unique opportunity to directly visualize blood vessels in vivo noninvasively. Over the past few decades, several new imaging techniques have been adapted to study the retinal vasculature in the laboratory in animal models and in the clinic in human subjects. High-contrast, finely detailed fundus images can be acquired by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO). With fluorescein angiography (FA), the retinal microcirculation can be visualized. High-resolution spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is able to acquire cross-section images resolving the microarchitecture of the retina, similar to histology. The techniques and protocols for acquiring cSLO, FA, and SD-OCT imaging of the retinal vasculature and morphology in the rodent are described.

altmetric score

  • 1

author list (cited authors)

  • Xie, W., Zhao, M., Hein, T. W., Kuo, L., & Rosa, R. H.

citation count

  • 0

complete list of authors

  • Xie, Wankun||Zhao, Min||Hein, Travis W||Kuo, Lih||Rosa, Robert H

Book Title

  • Cardiovascular Development

publication date

  • January 2021