Molecular mechanisms of environmental toxin cadmium at the feto-maternal interface investigated using an organ-on-chip (FMi-OOC) model.
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Human labor is associated with feto-maternal-derived signals that coordinate to initiate delivery. Exposure to environmental chemicals can prematurely trigger labor-initiating signals at the feto-maternal interface (FMi: decidua, amniochorion), leading to spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). Testing the association between environmental chemical exposure and PTB is difficult due to many limitations in vivo or in vitro. Physiological organ-on-chips (OOCs) are potential alternatives for studying mechanisms leading to PTB. The presented study tested the effect of maternal exposure to cadmium (Cd), an environmental toxin, using the FMi-OOC that incorporates maternal decidua cells and three different fetal cells (chorion, amnion mesenchymal, and amnion epithelial cells). Cd transport through the FMi and its impact on cell cycle, cell death, and inflammation were analyzed. Cd treatment resulted in significant cell death and a pro-inflammatory environment in the maternal decidua, but had minimal effect on the fetal chorion cells, and no effect in the fetal amnion cells compared to controls. The maternal response, but lack of fetal response, indicates that Cd-mediated adverse effects originate from maternal pathophysiology rather than fetal-derived triggers of preterm labor. This study demonstrates that the FMi-OOC can indeed predict the response of FMi upon exposure to chemicals, opening the possibility for using OOC models for environmental toxin screens.
author list (cited authors)
Kim, S., Richardson, L., Radnaa, E., Chen, Z., Rusyn, I., Menon, R., & Han, A.
complete list of authors
Kim, Sungjin||Richardson, Lauren||Radnaa, Enkhtuya||Chen, Zunwei||Rusyn, Ivan||Menon, Ramkumar||Han, Arum