Optimization of ultrasonographic ureteral jet detection and normal ureteral jet morphology in dogs. Academic Article uri icon


  • Ureteral jets are visualized with ultrasound as echogenic streams extending from the ureterovesicular junction into the urinary bladder. In clinical practice, diuretics are sometimes administered to increase visibility of ureteral jets, however this has not been well described in the veterinary literature. The purpose of this prospective, crossover study was to describe the normal morphology of canine ureteral jets, determine an optimal protocol for diuretic administration to increase visibility of ureteral jets, and confirm in vitro the effect that differences in specific gravity and velocity have on visibility. Ultrasound of 10 normal dogs was performed at baseline and following 1mg/kg furosemide administered intravenously or subcutaneously. Increased numbers of ureteral jets were seen post-furosemide administration compared to baseline, with an overall increased number of ureteral jets identified following intravenous administration when compared to subcutaneous administration. Time to first ureteral jet was significantly shorter with intravenous compared to subcutaneous administration. Urine specific gravity significantly decreased following furosemide administration. For the in vitro study, saline solutions of varying specific gravities were infused into a bath of hypertonic saline with specific gravity of 1.037. There was good visibility in vitro with infusion of solutions of specific gravities of 1.010-1.025. Infusion of saline solution with a specific gravity of 1.030 had reduced visibility, while infusion of saline with equivalent specific gravity (1.037) was not visible with B-mode ultrasonography. Both intravenous and subcutaneous furosemide administration significantly increase ureteral jet detection with ultrasound secondary to differences in specific gravity, confirming results of prior studies.

published proceedings

  • Vet Radiol Ultrasound

altmetric score

  • 0.25

author list (cited authors)

  • Gremillion, C., Cohen, E. B., Vaden, S., & Seiler, G.

citation count

  • 4

publication date

  • January 2021