Objectives in preparing a quality animal care and use protocol (AUP) revolve around the creation of a document that meets federal and institutional regulatory guidelines and that provides adequate detail for members of the institutional animal care and use committee to determine whether animal care and use procedures are justified and humane. Generally, either the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals or Guide for the Care and Use of Agricultural Animals in Research and Teaching will serve as a guide for preparing AUPs. In addition, AUPs are publicly accessible; therefore, a section of the document must be written such that the lay public can easily read and understand what will happen to the animals and why. Well-written, thorough protocols must include: 1) USDA/Animal Welfare Act pain/distress category; 2) signed certification that the principal investigator, co-principal investigators and all personnel whose names appear on the AUP understand and will adhere to the requirements associated with the animal procedures to be employed and accept that they are under federal and institutional regulatory authority; 3) the work with animals is restricted specifically to what is approved in the official AUP. Specific work-related sections of the AUP should include 1) names and contact information of the principal and co-principal investigators and animal care contact personnel; 2) a lay summary that describes the purpose of the work and what specifically will happen to the animals; 3) detailed description of animal procedures and experimental design, including species, numbers, age and sex of animals; 4) animal procurement and maintenance information; 5) animal transfer and euthanasia procedures; 6) pharmaceutical/chemical agents to be administered; 7) qualifications and experience of all personnel; 8) emergency contacts and procedures; 9) complete description of surgical procedures; 10) arrangements for veterinary care.