Who receives influenza vaccinations at the Pharmacy? An analysis of the Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Academic Article uri icon


  • INTRODUCTION: Vaccination helps to prevent influenza infection and reduce associated costs but the influenza vaccination rate in Texas for adults between the ages of 18 to 64¬†years old is the lowest in the US. Pharmacies and alternative locations have been shown to help increase vaccination rates but many adults still go unvaccinated. OBJECTIVE: This research aims to determine the factors associated with obtaining influenza vaccination at the pharmacy compared to non-pharmacy locations in Texas. METHOD: This study used pooled Texas Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System datasets (2014 to 2018) for this assessment. The main outcome variable was categorized into pharmacy and non-pharmacy vaccination locations and analyzed using a logistic regression analysis. Further statistical analysis was done using a multinomial logistic regression after re-categorizing the outcome variable into pharmacy, doctor office, and other locations. RESULT: Blacks were 63% (AOR 0.37, C.I. 0.26, 0.50) and Hispanics were 38% (AOR 0.62, C.I. 0.48, 0.80) less likely to receive influenza vaccinations at the pharmacy respectively when compared to Whites. Furthermore, those who did not live in a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) were 33% (AOR 0.67, C.I 0.53, 0.84) less likely to receive influenza vaccinations at the pharmacy compared to those who lived in an MSA. While there was no observed difference in the likelihood of receiving influenza vaccination, the unemployed population were 40% (AOR 1.40, C.I 1.15, 1.71) more likely to be vaccinated in the pharmacy compared to the employed population. CONCLUSION: There is potential for increased utilization of pharmacies as a source of influenza vaccination in Texas. Racial differences exist both for receiving influenza vaccinations and being vaccinated in the pharmacy. Influenza vaccination advocacy and education efforts may be necessary to improve pharmacy-based vaccination in Texas, especially for minorities and rural-dwelling Texans.

published proceedings

  • Vaccine

altmetric score

  • 62

author list (cited authors)

  • Olatunji, E. A., Ogunsola, A. S., Khodakarami, N., & Callaghan, T.

citation count

  • 0

complete list of authors

  • Olatunji, Eniola A||Ogunsola, Ayobami S||Khodakarami, Nima||Callaghan, Timothy

publication date

  • May 2021