A metric for spatially explicit contributions to science-based species targets. Academic Article uri icon


  • The Convention on Biological Diversity's post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework will probably include a goal to stabilize and restore the status of species. Its delivery would be facilitated by making the actions required to halt and reverse species loss spatially explicit. Here, we develop a species threat abatement and restoration (STAR) metric that is scalable across species, threats and geographies. STAR quantifies the contributions that abating threats and restoring habitats in specific places offer towards reducing extinction risk. While every nation can contribute towards halting biodiversity loss, Indonesia, Colombia, Mexico, Madagascar and Brazil combined have stewardship over 31% of total STAR values for terrestrial amphibians, birds and mammals. Among actions, sustainable crop production and forestry dominate, contributing 41% of total STAR values for these taxonomic groups. Key Biodiversity Areas cover 9% of the terrestrial surface but capture 47% of STAR values. STAR could support governmental and non-state actors in quantifying their contributions to meeting science-based species targets within the framework.

published proceedings

  • Nat Ecol Evol

altmetric score

  • 177.402

author list (cited authors)

  • Mair, L., Bennun, L. A., Brooks, T. M., Butchart, S., Bolam, F. C., Burgess, N. D., ... McGowan, P.

citation count

  • 20

complete list of authors

  • Mair, Louise||Bennun, Leon A||Brooks, Thomas M||Butchart, Stuart HM||Bolam, Friederike C||Burgess, Neil D||Ekstrom, Jonathan MM||Milner-Gulland, EJ||Hoffmann, Michael||Ma, Keping||Macfarlane, Nicholas BW||Raimondo, Domitilla C||Rodrigues, Ana SL||Shen, Xiaoli||Strassburg, Bernardo BN||Beatty, Craig R||Gómez-Creutzberg, Carla||Iribarrem, Alvaro||Irmadhiany, Meizani||Lacerda, Eduardo||Mattos, Bianca C||Parakkasi, Karmila||Tognelli, Marcelo F||Bennett, Elizabeth L||Bryan, Catherine||Carbone, Giulia||Chaudhary, Abhishek||Eiselin, Maxime||da Fonseca, Gustavo AB||Galt, Russell||Geschke, Arne||Glew, Louise||Goedicke, Romie||Green, Jonathan MH||Gregory, Richard D||Hill, Samantha LL||Hole, David G||Hughes, Jonathan||Hutton, Jonathan||Keijzer, Marco PW||Navarro, Laetitia M||Nic Lughadha, Eimear||Plumptre, Andrew J||Puydarrieux, Philippe||Possingham, Hugh P||Rankovic, Aleksandar||Regan, Eugenie C||Rondinini, Carlo||Schneck, Joshua D||Siikamäki, Juha||Sendashonga, Cyriaque||Seutin, Gilles||Sinclair, Sam||Skowno, Andrew L||Soto-Navarro, Carolina A||Stuart, Simon N||Temple, Helen J||Vallier, Antoine||Verones, Francesca||Viana, Leonardo R||Watson, James||Bezeng, Simeon||Böhm, Monika||Burfield, Ian J||Clausnitzer, Viola||Clubbe, Colin||Cox, Neil A||Freyhof, Jörg||Gerber, Leah R||Hilton-Taylor, Craig||Jenkins, Richard||Joolia, Ackbar||Joppa, Lucas N||Koh, Lian Pin||Lacher, Thomas E||Langhammer, Penny F||Long, Barney||Mallon, David||Pacifici, Michela||Polidoro, Beth A||Pollock, Caroline M||Rivers, Malin C||Roach, Nicolette S||Rodríguez, Jon Paul||Smart, Jane||Young, Bruce E||Hawkins, Frank||McGowan, Philip JK

publication date

  • June 2021