This study explores the efficacy of utilizing a novel ground penetrating radar (GPR) acquisition platform and data analysis methods to quantify peanut yield for breeding selection, agronomic research, and producer management and harvest applications. Sixty plots comprising different peanut market types were scanned with a multichannel, air-launched GPR antenna. Image thresholding analysis was performed on 3D GPR data from four of the channels to extract features that were correlated to peanut yield with the objective of developing a noninvasive high-throughput peanut phenotyping and yield-monitoring methodology. Plot-level GPR data were summarized using mean, standard deviation, sum, and the number of nonzero values (counts) below or above different percentile threshold values. Best results were obtained for data below the percentile threshold for mean, standard deviation and sum. Data both below and above the percentile threshold generated good correlations for count. Correlating individual GPR features to yield generated correlations of up to 39% explained variability, while combining GPR features in multiple linear regression models generated up to 51% explained variability. The correlations increased when regression models were developed separately for each peanut type. This research demonstrates that a systematic search of thresholding range, analysis window size, and data summary statistics is necessary for successful application of this type of analysis. The results also establish that thresholding analysis of GPR data is an appropriate methodology for noninvasive assessment of peanut yield, which could be further developed for high-throughput phenotyping and yield-monitoring, adding a new sensor and new capabilities to the growing set of digital agriculture technologies.