Ginsenoside Rb1 Protects Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells against High Glucose-Induced Mitochondria-Related Apoptosis through Activating SIRT3 Signalling Pathway.
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OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1) can protect human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) against high glucose-induced apoptosis and examine the underlying mechanism. METHODS: HUVECs were divided into 5 groups: control group (5.5 mmol/L glucose), high glucose (HG, 40 mmol/L) treatment group, Rb1 (50 µ mol/L) treatment group, Rb1 plus HG treatment group, and Rb1 and 3-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl) pyridine (3-TYP, 16 µ mol/L) plus HG treatment group. Cell viability was evaluated by cell counting kit-8 assay. Mitochondrial and intracellular reactive oxygen species were detected by MitoSox Red mitochondrial superoxide indicator and dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate assay, respectively. Annexin V/propidium iodide staining and fluorescent dye staining were used to measure the apoptosis and the mitochondrial membrane potential of HUVECs, respectively. The protein expressions of apoptosis-related proteins [Bcl-2, Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and cytochrome c (Cyt-c)], mitochondrial biogenesis-related proteins [proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha, nuclear respiratory factor-1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A)], acetylation levels of forkhead box O3a and SOD2, and sirtuin-3 (SIRT3) signalling pathway were measured by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: Rb1 ameliorated survival in cells in which apoptosis was induced by high glucose (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Upon the addition of Rb1, mitochondrial and intracellular reactive oxygen species generation and malondialdehyde levels were decreased (P<0.01), while the activities of antioxidant enzymes were increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Rb1 preserved the mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced the release of Cyt-c from the mitochondria into the cytosol (P<0.01). In addition, Rb1 upregulated mitochondrial biogenesis-associated proteins (P<0.01). Notably, the cytoprotective effects of Rb1 were correlated with SIRT3 signalling pathway activation (P<0.01). The effect of Rb1 against high glucose-induced mitochondria-related apoptosis was restrained by 3-TYP (P<0.05 or P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Rb1 could protect HUVECs from high glucose-induced apoptosis by promoting mitochondrial function and suppressing oxidative stress through the SIRT3 signalling pathway.
author list (cited authors)
Ke, S., Yu, S., Liu, D., Shi, G., Wang, M., Zhou, B., ... Qian, X.
complete list of authors
Ke, Shi-Ye||Yu, Shu-Jie||Liu, Ding-Hui||Shi, Guang-Yao||Wang, Min||Zhou, Bin||Wu, Lin||Song, Zhi-Ming||Zhu, Jie-Ming||Wu, Chao-Dong||Qian, Xiao-Xian