Effects of Interspecific Chromosome Substitution in Upland Cotton on Cottonseed Macronutrients.
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Nutrients, including macronutrients such as Ca, P, K, and Mg, are essential for crop production and seed quality, and for human and animal nutrition and health. Macronutrient deficiencies in soil lead to poor crop nutritional qualities and a low level of macronutrients in cottonseed meal-based products, leading to malnutrition. Therefore, the discovery of novel germplasm with a high level of macronutrients or significant variability in the macronutrient content of crop seeds is critical. To our knowledge, there is no information available on the effects of chromosome or chromosome arm substitution on cottonseed macronutrient content. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of chromosome or chromosome arm substitution on the variability and content of the cottonseed macronutrients Ca, K, Mg, N, P, and S in chromosome substitution lines (CS). Nine chromosome substitution lines were grown in two-field experiments at two locations in 2013 in South Carolina, USA, and in 2014 in Mississippi, USA. The controls used were TM-1, the recurrent parent of the CS line, and the cultivar AM UA48. The results showed major variability in macronutrients among CS lines and between CS lines and controls. For example, in South Carolina, the mean values showed that five CS lines (CS-T02, CS-T04, CS-T08sh, CS-B02, and CS-B04) had higher Ca level in seed than controls. Ca levels in these CS lines varied from 1.88 to 2.63 g kg-1 compared with 1.81 and 1.72 g kg-1 for TM-1 and AMUA48, respectively, with CS-T04 having the highest Ca concentration. CS-M08sh exhibited the highest K concentration (14.50 g kg-1), an increase of 29% and 49% over TM-1 and AM UA48, respectively. Other CS lines had higher Mg, P, and S than the controls. A similar trend was found at the MS location. This research demonstrated that chromosome substitution resulted in higher seed macronutrients in some CS lines, and these CS lines with a higher content of macronutrients can be used as a genetic tool towards the identification of desired seed nutrition traits. Also, the CS lines with higher desired macronutrients can be used as parents to breed for improved nutritional quality in Upland cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., through improvement by the interspecific introgression of desired seed nutrient traits such as Ca, K, P, S, and N. The positive and significant (p 0.0001) correlation of P with Ca, P with Mg, S with P, and S with N will aid in understanding the relationships between nutrients to improve the fertilizer management program and maintain higher cottonseed nutrient content.