Assessment of the total organic carbon employing the different nature-inspired approaches in the Nakdong River, South Korea. Academic Article uri icon


  • Total organic carbon (TOC) has vital significance for measuring water quality in river streamflow. The detection of TOC can be considered as an important evaluation because of issues on human health and environmental indicators. This research utilized the novel hybrid models to improve the predictive accuracy of TOC at Andong and Changnyeong stations in the Nakdong River, South Korea. A data pre-processing approach (i.e., complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (CEEMDAN)) and evolutionary optimization algorithm (i.e., crow search algorithm (CSA)) were implemented for enhancing the accuracy and robustness of standalone models (i.e., multivariate adaptive regression spline (MARS) and M5Tree). Various water quality indicators (i.e., TOC, potential of Hydrogen (pH), electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), water temperature (WT), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and suspended solids (SS)) were utilized for developing the standalone and hybrid models based on three input combinations (i.e., categories 1~3). The developed models were evaluated utilizing the correlation coefficient (CC), root-mean-square error (RMSE), and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE). The CEEMDAN-MARS-CSA based on category 2 (C-M-CSA2) model (CC=0.762, RMSE=0.570mg/L, and NSE=0.520) was the most accurate for predicting TOC at Andong station, whereas the CEEMDAN-MARS-CSA based on category 3 (C-M-CSA3) model (CC=0.900, RMSE=0.675mg/L, and NSE=0.680) was the best at Changnyeong station.

published proceedings

  • Environ Monit Assess

author list (cited authors)

  • Kim, S., Maleki, N., Rezaie-Balf, M., Singh, V. P., Alizamir, M., Kim, N. W., Lee, J., & Kisi, O.

citation count

  • 2

complete list of authors

  • Kim, Sungwon||Maleki, Niloofar||Rezaie-Balf, Mohammad||Singh, Vijay P||Alizamir, Meysam||Kim, Nam Won||Lee, Jong-Tak||Kisi, Ozgur

publication date

  • June 2021