Post‐operative complications following apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma resection in dogs Academic Article uri icon


  • OBJECTIVE: Describe the complications associated with surgical resection of primary apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASACA) tumors STUDY DESIGN: Multi-institutional retrospective cross-sectional cohort study ANIMALS: Client owned dogs with spontaneous disease METHODS: Using the Clavien-Dindo classification system, post-operative events were assigned and described. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze for risk factors for a significant association with complications. RESULTS: One hundred sixty-one dogs were included in the analysis. The post-operative sequelae, complication, and failure to cure rates specific to the anal sac site was 14, 17 and 1% respectively. The majority (68%) of complications were grade II or higher, therefore requiring some form of intervention. Intra-operative complications were identified in 11 cases (7%) with anorectal wall perforation being most common. An intra-operative complication was significantly associated with post-operative complications (P < 0.001; OR 7.4) while anorectal wall perforation was the only significant risk factor on regression analysis (P < 0.001; OR 19). Surgical site infection was identified in 20 of 161 (12%) of cases. Local recurrence (LR) occurred in 18% of cases at a median of 374 days (95% CI: 318-430). The only risk factor significantly associated with LR was the presence of vascular or lymphatic invasion (P = 0.008; OR 3). CONCLUSIONS: Post-operative complications were relatively infrequent but the risk was significantly increased when there was an intraoperative complication during resection of a primary AGASACA tumor. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides information for the clinician regarding risk factors for post-operative complications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

author list (cited authors)

  • Sterman, A., Butler, J. R., Chambers, A., Dickson, R., Dornbusch, J., Mickelson, M., ... Janssens, B. W.

publication date

  • January 1, 2021 11:11 AM