The adverse effects of the phenylpyrazole, fipronil, on juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus.
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Chemical pesticides are commonly used world-wide, and they can flow into estuaries and affect non-targeted organisms. We evaluated the effects of six concentrations of the phenylpyrazole, fipronil (0.0, 0.005, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 3.0 g/L), which are environmentally relevant, on white shrimp Litopenaeus setiferus (initially averaging 0.80 0.08 g/shrimp). Compared with the control, survivorship of shrimp over 45 days declined significantly at the higher concentration treatments. Growth was affected at all concentrations, and the percent weight gain decreased significantly. Inter-molt intervals were longer in all treatments. Changes in swimming and feeding behavior of shrimp were observed under all treatments, and change in body color was observed at higher concentration treatments. Lipid content in shrimp decreased significantly while ash content increased with fipronil concentration. Fipronil adversely affected white shrimp under the concentrations observed in the environment and monitoring of fipronil use is needed in coastal areas.