Changes in Levels and Determinants of Maternal Health Service Utilization in Ethiopia: Comparative Analysis of Two Rounds Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys. Academic Article uri icon


  • BACKGROUND: Antenatal care (ANC), delivery by skilled birth attendants, and postnatal care (PNC) are critical components of maternal health services for reducing maternal mortality. The study aimed to compare the utilization of maternal health services in the two most recent rounds of Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys (EDHS) and identify the factors influencing the utilization of these services using the 2016 EDHS. METHODS: Two rounds of EDHS data in 2011 and 2016 were used to estimate the proportion of women who had ANC, delivered by skilled birth attendants, and had a postnatal checkup and other characteristics of the surveyed population. The most recent round of data-the 2016 EDHS-was used to examine the socio-cultural and reproductive health factors associated with the three maternal health services utilization. Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses with adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR) were conducted using Stata 15.0. RESULTS: The use of ANC services and skilled birth attendants increased significantly between 2011 and 2016 EDHS, utilization of ANC services increased from 34.0 to 65.5%, and use of skilled birth attendants increased from 11.7 to 35.9%, respectively. The use of postnatal care decreased from 9.3 to 6.9%. Utilization of maternal health service was significantly associated with urban residence, Protestant religion, Oromo ethnicity, more education, more household wealth, and less parity. Furthermore, women who had ANC visits during pregnancy were more likely to subsequently use skilled birth attendants (AOR 5.5, p<0.001) and PNC (AOR 2.9, p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The study highlighted the inequalities in the utilization of maternal health services between rural and urban areas, and the need of addressing the social, economic, and physical barriers that prevent women from using these services. Further, programs should be targeted at promoting the use of professional birth and postnatal services in Ethiopia.

published proceedings

  • Matern Child Health J

author list (cited authors)

  • Fan, Q., Roque, M., Nuzhath, T., Hossain, M. M., Jin, X., Aggad, R., ... Ma, P.

citation count

  • 0

complete list of authors

  • Fan, Qiping||Roque, Maria||Nuzhath, Tasmiah||Hossain, Md Mahbub||Jin, Xurui||Aggad, Roaa||Myint, Wah Wah||Zhang, Geng||McKyer, E Lisako Jones||Ma, Ping

publication date

  • January 2021