Retrospective Survey of Amphibian Pathology Cases at Texas A&M University System (2016-2020). Academic Article uri icon


  • Dramatic declines in amphibians worldwide highlight the need for a better understanding of diseases affecting these species. To delineate the health issues of amphibians submitted to Texas A&M University System (2016-2020), the databases were queried on the basis of defined selection criteria. A total of 502 anurans (157 frogs [44 species] and 345 toads [10 species]) and 30 caudatans (23 salamanders [6 species] and 7 newts [4 species]) were reviewed. A most likely cause of death or major pathological finding (CD-MPF) leading to euthanasia was identified in 295 (55%) Anura cases and 15 (50%) Caudata cases. Of the 532 records reviewed, anurans included 492 captive, seven free-ranging and three undetermined specimens. All caudatans were captive. The most common CD-MPF in anurans was infectious/inflammatory (228/295; 77%), involving mycobacteriosis (73/228; 32%), chlamydiosis (44/228; 19%) and mycosis (32/228; 14%). Neoplasia was less common (28/295; 9%). Infectious/inflammatory lesions (14/15; 93%) were the main CD-MPFs in caudatans. Infectious diseases are a significant threat to captive amphibians in Texas and these results may aid personnel involved in amphibian conservation programmes, veterinarians and diagnosticians.

published proceedings

  • J Comp Pathol

author list (cited authors)

  • Balamayooran, G., Snook, E., Tocidlowski, M., Flanagan, J., Sims, W., Helman, G., ... Daz-Delgado, J.

citation count

  • 1

complete list of authors

  • Balamayooran, Gayathriy||Snook, Eric||Tocidlowski, Maryanne||Flanagan, Joe||Sims, Will||Helman, Gayman||Hensel, Martha||Hodo, Carolyn L||Templeton, Alexis A||Anguiano, Maritza||Edwards, Erin E||Hoffman, Jay||Porter, Brian F||Groch, Kátia R||Gomez, Gabriel||Díaz-Delgado, Josue

publication date

  • January 2021