Effects of bismuth subsalicylate and calcium-ammonium nitrate on ruminal in vitro fermentation of bahiagrass hay with supplemental molasses.
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There is a need to increase efficiency of beef production. Decreasing losses of CH4 and improving byproduct utilization are popular strategies. Two feed additives were tested to find potential solutions. Three randomized complete block design experiments were performed using batch culture systems to evaluate the effects of bismuth subsalicylate (BSS) and calcium-ammonium nitrate (CAN) on in vitro ruminal fermentation of bahiagrass hay and supplemental molasses. The first experiment contained four treatments: (1) basal substrate; (2) basal substrate with 0.75% urea (DM basis); (3) basal substrate with 1.2% CAN and 0.38% urea (DM basis); and (4) basal substrate with 2.4% CAN (DM basis). Treatments 2, 3, and 4 were isonitrogenous. The second experiment had a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with 4 concentrations of BSS (0.00, 0.33, 0.66, and 1.00%; DM basis) and 3 concentrations of CAN (0.0, 1.2, and 2.4%; DM basis). The third experiment had the following treatments: (1) basal substrate; (2) basal substrate with 0.05% BSS (DM basis); (3) basal substrate with 0.10% BSS (DM basis); and (4) basal substrate with 0.33% BSS (DM basis). For all experiments, basal substrate consisted of Pensacola bahiagrass hay (Paspalum notatum Flüggé; 80% substrate DM) and molasses (20% substrate DM). All data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS. In Exp. 1, in vitro organic matter (OM) digestibility (IVOMD) was linearly reduced (P < 0.001) with the inclusion of CAN, and CH4, in mmol/g OM fermented, was decreased linearly (P < 0.001). The volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile was not impacted by the inclusion of nonprotein nitrogen (NPN) or CAN (P > 0.05). In Exp. 2, except for CH4 production (P < 0.05), there were no BSS × CAN interactions. Linear reductions in total gas production (P < 0.001), IVOMD (P < 0.001), and total concentration of VFA (P = 0.007) were observed with the inclusion of BSS up to 1%. The inclusion of BSS decreased H2S production in a quadratic manner (P = 0.024). In Exp. 3, IVOMD was not impacted by the inclusion of BSS (P > 0.05); however, production of H2S was linearly decreased (P = 0.004) with the inclusion of BSS up to 0.33%. In conclusion, in vitro fermentation was negatively impacted by the inclusions of BSS, up to 1%, and CAN, up to 2.4%; however, BSS decreased production of H2S when included up to 0.33% without impeding fermentation, while CAN decreased CH4 production.