Quantitative Characterization of Population-Wide Tissue- and Metabolite-Specific Variability in Perchloroethylene Toxicokinetics in Male Mice.
Additional Document Info
Quantification of interindividual variability is a continuing challenge in risk assessment, particularly for compounds with complex metabolism and multi-organ toxicity. Toxicokinetic variability for perchloroethylene (perc) was previously characterized across 3 mouse strains and in 1 mouse strain with various degrees of liver steatosis. To further characterize the role of genetic variability in toxicokinetics of perc, we applied Bayesian population physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to the data on perc and metabolites in blood/plasma and tissues of male mice from 45 inbred strains from the Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse population. After identifying the most influential PBPK parameters based on global sensitivity analysis, we fit the model with a hierarchical Bayesian population analysis using Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. We found that the data from 3 commonly used strains were not representative of the full range of variability in perc and metabolite blood/plasma and tissue concentrations across the CC population. Using interstrain variability as a surrogate for human interindividual variability, we calculated dose-dependent, chemical-, and tissue-specific toxicokinetic variability factors (TKVFs) as candidate science-based replacements for the default uncertainty factor for human toxicokinetic variability of 100.5. We found that toxicokinetic variability factors for glutathione conjugation metabolites of perc showed the greatest variability, often exceeding the default, whereas those for oxidative metabolites and perc itself were generally less than the default. Overall, we demonstrate how a combination of a population-based mouse model such as the CC with Bayesian population PBPK modeling can reduce uncertainty in human toxicokinetic variability and increase accuracy and precision in quantitative risk assessment.