Islanded Microgrid Restoration Studies with Graph-Based Analysis Academic Article uri icon


  • The need to restore and keep the grid running or fast restoration during emergencies such as extreme weather conditions is quite apparent given the reliance of other infrastructure on electricity. One promising approach to electricity restoration is the use of locally available energy resources to restore the system to form isolated microgrids. In this paper, we present a black start restoration method that forms islanded microgrids after a blackout. The master DGs in the formed microgrids are coordinated to work together through droop control. Several constraints, including incentive-based demand response (DR) with direct load control (DLC) and distributed generator (DG) operation constraints, were formulated and linearized to realize a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) restoration model. To improve compactness and to ensure that the model is neither under-sized nor over-sized, a pre-processing graph analysis approach was introduced which helps to characterize the least number of restoration steps needed to optimally restore the microgrid. Studies were performed on a modified IEEE 123 node test feeder to evaluate the effects of demand response, non-dispatchable DGs, and choice of restoration steps on the quality of the restoration solution. When possible, the proposed method yields an interconnected multi-master microgrid with improved redundancy.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Bassey, O., & Butler-Purry, K. L.

citation count

  • 1

complete list of authors

  • Bassey, Ogbonnaya||Butler-Purry, Karen L

publication date

  • September 2022