Microfluidic electro-sonoporation by simultaneous application of electric field and acoustic field
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Molecular delivery into cells has broad applications in fundamental biology and genetic engineering. Among various methods, electroporation and sonoporation have gained popularity for their simple configurations and operation procedures, however both have trade-offs between poration efficiency and cell viability. Here we present for the first time the simultaneous application of electric field and acoustic pressure field in a flow-through microfluidic channel for highly efficient small molecule delivery into mammalian cells with high cell viability. The developed multi-modal poration strategy showed delivery efficiency of 87.9% and cell viability of 96.3%, which were higher than each of the poration modalities used alone.