Association Between Bisphenol A Exposure and Risk of All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in US Adults
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Importance: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a major public health concern because of its high-volume industrial production, ubiquitous exposure to humans, and potential toxic effects on multiple organs and systems in humans. However, prospective studies regarding the association of BPA exposure with long-term health outcomes are sparse. Objective: To examine the association of BPA exposure with all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality among adults in the United States. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nationally representative cohort study included 3883 adults aged 20 years or older who participated in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2008 and provided urine samples for BPA level measurements. Participants were linked to mortality data from survey date through December 31, 2015. Data analyses were conducted in July 2019. Exposures: Urinary BPA levels were quantified using online solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Results: This cohort study included 3883 adults aged 20 years or older (weighted mean [SE] age, 43.6 [0.3] years; 2032 women [weighted, 51.4%]). During 36 514 person-years of follow-up (median, 9.6 years; maximum, 13.1 years), 344 deaths occurred, including 71 deaths from cardiovascular disease and 75 deaths from cancer. Participants with higher urinary BPA levels were at higher risk for death. After adjustment for age, sex, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, dietary and lifestyle factors, body mass index, and urinary creatinine levels, the hazard ratio comparing the highest vs lowest tertile of urinary BPA levels was 1.49 (95% CI, 1.01-2.19) for all-cause mortality, 1.46 (95% CI, 0.67-3.15) for cardiovascular disease mortality, and 0.98 (95% CI, 0.40-2.39) for cancer mortality. Conclusions and Relevance: In this nationally representative cohort of US adults, higher BPA exposure was significantly associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality. Further studies are needed to replicate these findings in other populations and determine the underlying mechanisms.
author list (cited authors)
Bao, W., Liu, B., Rong, S., Dai, S. Y., Trasande, L., & Lehmler, H.