Linear infinite dimensional systems are described by a closed, densely defined linear operator that generates a continuous semigroup of bounded operators on a general Hilbert space of states and are controlled via a finite number of actuators and sensors. Many distributed applications are included in this formulation, such as large flexible aerospace structures, adaptive optics, diffusion reactions, smart electric power grids, and quantum information systems.
In this paper, we focus on infinite dimensional linear systems for which a fixed gain linear infinite or finite dimensional controller is already in place. We augment this controller with a direct adaptive controller that will maintain stability of the full closed loop system even when the fixed gain controller fails to do so. We prove that the transmission zeros of the combined system are the original open loop transmission zeros, and the point spectrum of the controller alone. Therefore, the combined plant plus controller is Almost Strictly Dissipative (ASD) if and only if the original open loop system is minimum phase, and the fixed gain controller alone is exponentially stable. This result is true whether the fixed gain controller is finite or infinite dimensional. In particular this guarantees that a controller for an infinite dimensional plant based on a reduced -order approximation can be stabilized by augmentation with direct adaptive control to mitigate risks.
These results are illustrated by application to direct adaptive control of general linear diffusion systems on a Hilbert space that are described by self-adjoint operators with compact resolvent.