Residence characteristics and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in southern China: A population-based case-control study.
Additional Document Info
OBJECTIVES: Given the role of exposures related to residence in the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has not been well explored, present study aims to investigate the magnitude and pattern of associations for NPC with lifelong residential exposures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We carried out a multi-center, population-based case-control study with 2533 incident NPC cases and 2597 randomly selected population controls in southern China between 2010 and 2014. We performed multivariate logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of NPC associated with residential exposures. RESULTS: Compared with those living in a building over lifetime, risk of NPC was higher for individuals living in a cottage (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.34-1.81) or in a boat (3.87; 2.07-7.21). NPC risk was also increased in individuals using wood (1.34; 1.03-1.75), coal (1.70; 1.17-2.47), or kerosene (3.58; 1.75-7.36) vs. using gas/electricity as cooking fuel; using well water (1.57; 1.34-1.83), river water (1.80; 1.47-2.21), or spring/pond/stream water (2.03; 1.70-2.41) vs. tap water for source of drinking water; living in houses with smaller-sized vs. larger windows in the bedroom (3.08; 2.46-3.86), hall (1.89; 1.55-2.31) or kitchen (1.67; 1.34-2.08); and increasing exposure to cooking smoke [(1.53; 1.20-1.94) for high exposure)] or burned incense [(1.59; 1.31-1.95) for daily use)]. Weighted Cox regression analysis corroborated these results. CONCLUSION: Poorer residential conditions and household air pollution are associated with an increased risk of NPC. Large-scale studies in other populations or longitudinal studies are warranted to further corroborate these findings.