Jack and Jill Went Up the Hill, but Jill Won Both Ways: The True Story about Differential Academic Achievement Academic Article uri icon


  • This longitudinal study was designed to examine how science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) project-based learning (PBL) affected the success of high school women in comparison with high school men in mathematics and science, with English performance as a control. We analysed the four-year performance, course-taking, and retention of high school students (n = 186) in these three subjects in a school where STEM PBL was enacted. Students Texas state-mandated high-stakes test scores were collected. A repeated measures MANOVA was used for analysing changes in performance after infusing STEM PBL activities into their classes. The results indicated that there was a statistically significant change in scores for both men and women in mathematics and science; however, the attrition for women was much less than for men. We included implications for how to escalate women's performance and retention in STEM-based areas.

published proceedings

  • International Journal of Innovation in Science and Mathematics Education

author list (cited authors)

  • Younes, R. G., Capraro, R. M., Capraro, M. M., Rosli, R., Lee, Y., Vela, K., & Bevan, D.

citation count

  • 2

complete list of authors

  • Younes, Rayya G||Capraro, Robert M||Capraro, Mary M||Rosli, Roslinda||Lee, Yujin||Vela, Katherine||Bevan, Danielle

publication date

  • January 2021