Bioactive Siloxane-Containing Shape-Memory Polymer (SMP) Scaffolds with Tunable Degradation Rates.
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A material-guided, regenerative approach to heal cranial defects requires a scaffold that cannot only achieve conformal fit into irregular geometries but also has bioactivity and suitable resorption rates. We have previously reported "self-fitting" shape-memory polymer (SMP) scaffolds based on poly(ε-caprolactone) diacrylate (PCL-DA) that shape recover to fill irregular defect geometries. However, PCL-DA scaffolds lack innate bioactivity and degrade very slowly. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has been shown to impart innate bioactivity and modify degradation rates when combined with organic cross-linked networks. Thus, this work reports the introduction of PDMS segments to form PCL/PDMS SMP scaffolds. These were prepared as co-matrices with three types of macromers to systematically alter PDMS content and cross-link density. Specifically, PCL90-DA was combined with linear-PDMS66-dimethacrylate (DMA) or 4-armed star-PDMS66-tetramethacrylate (TMA) macromers at 90:10, 75:25, and 60:40 wt % ratios. Additionally, a triblock macromer (AcO-PCL45-b-PDMS66-b-PCL45-OAc), having a 65:35 wt % ratio PCL/PDMS, was used. Scaffolds exhibited pore interconnectivity and uniform pore sizes and further maintained excellent shape-memory behavior. Degradation rates increased with PDMS content and reduced cross-link density, with phase separation contributing to this effect. Irrespective of PDMS content, all PCL/PDMS scaffolds exhibited the formation of carbonated hydroxyapatite (HAp) following exposure to simulated body fluid (SBF). While inclusion of PDMS expectedly reduced scaffold modulus and strength, mineralization increased these properties and, in some cases, to values exceeding or similar to the PCL-DA, which did not mineralize.
author list (cited authors)
Beltran, F. O., Houk, C. J., & Grunlan, M. A.
complete list of authors
Beltran, Felipe O||Houk, Christopher J||Grunlan, Melissa A