Algebraic formulas characterizing an alternative to Guyton's graphical analysis relevant for heart failure. Academic Article uri icon


  • Although Guyton's graphical analysis of cardiac output-venous return has become a ubiquitous tool for explaining how circulatory equilibrium emerges from heart-vascular interactions, this classical model relies on a formula for venous return that contains unphysiological assumptions. Furthermore, Guyton's graphical analysis does not predict pulmonary venous pressure, which is a critical variable for evaluating heart failure patients' risk of pulmonary edema. Therefore, the purpose of the present work was to use a minimal closed-loop mathematical model to develop an alternative to Guyton's analysis. Limitations inherent in Guyton's model were addressed by 1) partitioning the cardiovascular system differently to isolate left ventricular function and lump all blood volumes together, 2) linearizing end-diastolic pressure-volume relationships to obtain algebraic solutions, and 3) treating arterial pressures as constants. This approach yielded three advances. First, variables related to morbidities associated with left ventricular failure were predicted. Second, an algebraic formula predicting left ventricular function was derived in terms of ventricular properties. Third, an algebraic formula predicting flow through the portion of the system isolated from the left ventricle was derived in terms of mechanical properties without neglecting redistribution of blood between systemic and pulmonary circulations. Although complexities were neglected, approximations necessary to obtain algebraic formulas resulted in minimal error, and predicted variables were consistent with reported values.

published proceedings

  • Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol

altmetric score

  • 1

author list (cited authors)

  • Stiles, T. W., Morfin Rodriguez, A. E., Mohiuddin, H. S., Lee, H., Dalal, F. A., Fuertes, W. W., ... Quick, C. M.

citation count

  • 0

complete list of authors

  • Stiles, Thomas W||Morfin Rodriguez, Alejandra E||Mohiuddin, Hanifa S||Lee, Hyunjin||Dalal, Fazal A||Fuertes, Wesley W||Adams, Thaddeus H||Stewart, Randolph H||Quick, Christopher M

publication date

  • June 2021