Sheath-run artificial muscles. Academic Article uri icon


  • Although guest-filled carbon nanotube yarns provide record performance as torsional and tensile artificial muscles, they are expensive, and only part of the muscle effectively contributes to actuation. We describe a muscle type that provides higher performance, in which the guest that drives actuation is a sheath on a twisted or coiled core that can be an inexpensive yarn. This change from guest-filled to sheath-run artificial muscles increases the maximum work capacity by factors of 1.70 to 2.15 for tensile muscles driven electrothermally or by vapor absorption. A sheath-run electrochemical muscle generates 1.98 watts per gram of average contractile power-40 times that for human muscle and 9.0 times that of the highest power alternative electrochemical muscle. Theory predicts the observed performance advantages of sheath-run muscles.

published proceedings

  • Science

altmetric score

  • 124.856

author list (cited authors)

  • Mu, J., Jung de Andrade, M., Fang, S., Wang, X., Gao, E., Li, N. a., ... Baughman, R. H.

citation count

  • 121

complete list of authors

  • Mu, Jiuke||Jung de Andrade, Mônica||Fang, Shaoli||Wang, Xuemin||Gao, Enlai||Li, Na||Kim, Shi Hyeong||Wang, Hongzhi||Hou, Chengyi||Zhang, Qinghong||Zhu, Meifang||Qian, Dong||Lu, Hongbing||Kongahage, Dharshika||Talebian, Sepehr||Foroughi, Javad||Spinks, Geoffrey||Kim, Hyun||Ware, Taylor H||Sim, Hyeon Jun||Lee, Dong Yeop||Jang, Yongwoo||Kim, Seon Jeong||Baughman, Ray H

publication date

  • July 2019