Temperature dependence of fast dynamics in proteins.
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The temperature dependence of the internal dynamics of recombinant human ubiquitin has been measured using solution NMR relaxation techniques. Nitrogen-15 relaxation has been employed to obtain a measure of the amplitude of subnanosecond motion at amide N-H sites in the protein. Deuterium relaxation has been used to obtain a measure of the amplitude of motion of methyl-groups in amino-acid side chains. Data was obtained between 5 and 55 degrees C. The majority of amide N-H and methyl groups show a roughly linear (R(2)>0.75) temperature dependence of the associated Lipari-Szabo model-free squared generalized-order parameter (O(2)) describing the amplitude of motion. Interestingly, for those sites showing a linear response, the temperature dependence of the backbone is distinct from that of the methyl-bearing side chains with the former being characterized by a significantly larger Lambda-value, where Lambda is defined as d ln(1 - O)/d lnT. These results are comparable to the sole previous such study of the temperature dependence of protein motion obtained for a calmodulin-peptide complex. This suggests that the distinction between the main chain and methyl-bearing side chains may be general. Insight into the temperature dependence is gathered from a simple two-state step potential model.