Where Two Ends Meet: Operator and Stakeholder Perceptions of Procedures Academic Article uri icon


  • The differences between work as imagined (WAI) and work as done (WAD) reflect theoretically pervasive and well-known barriers to the examination of human performance at work. Due to the dynamic and situational nature of work, the idealized performance reflected in procedures is not always done as prescribed. The identification and examination of this gap and the nature of these deviations are imperative for high-risk industries. The present study used conventional content analysis to compare stakeholders performance expectations to the realities of operator performance through interviews collected at a high-risk petrochemical producer. Direct comparisons of stakeholder and operator perspectives revealed divergent expectations of how procedures are used, when theyre most useful, and reasons why operators dont utilize the procedure amendment process. These differences could be resolved through increased collaboration between stakeholders and operators. Future research should consider collaboration interventions to bridge the gap between WAI and WAD.

published proceedings

  • Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting

author list (cited authors)

  • Mendoza, A. M., Liu, S., Dumlao, S. V., Hendricks, J. W., Son, C., Sasangohar, F., & Peres, S. C.

citation count

  • 1

complete list of authors

  • Mendoza, Anjelica M||Liu, Sin-Ning C||Dumlao, Stefan V||Hendricks, Joseph W||Son, Changwon||Sasangohar, Farzan||Peres, S Camille

publication date

  • December 2020