Pain Management in Small Ruminants and Camelids: Applications and Strategies. Academic Article uri icon


  • Small ruminants are increasing in popularity as production and companion animals in the United States, and among sheep, goats, and camelids there are many disease processes and management techniques that have the potential to result in painful or noxious stimuli. In these species, many medications and therapeutic techniques can be used to reduce or eliminate the long-term consequences of pain. In this second portion of the review, we focus on the application of pain management in these species. These strategies include mono- and multimodal and the use of precision pain management, such as epidural drug administration, regional perfusions, and transdermal applications.

published proceedings

  • Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract

altmetric score

  • 0.25

author list (cited authors)

  • Smith, J. S., Schleining, J., & Plummer, P.

citation count

  • 2

complete list of authors

  • Smith, Joe S||Schleining, Jennifer||Plummer, Paul

publication date

  • January 2021