Keys to Class II correction: A comparison of 2 extraction protocols. Academic Article uri icon


  • INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2 extraction patterns on incisor and molar movements in patients with growing Class II Division1. METHODS: The sample included 54 patients 10-17years of age treated by 2 private practice orthodontists using Tweed directional force mechanics, 4 premolar extractions, J-hook headgears, and Class II elastics or Saif springs. The sample was divided on the basis of having maxillary and mandibular first premolars (4/4) or maxillary first and mandibular second premolars (4/5) extracted. Each group included 27 patients. Treatment lasted 2.80.60years and 2.60.54years for the 4/4 and 4/5 groups, respectively. Pretreatment (T1) and posttreatment lateral cephalograms and dental casts were evaluated. Cranial base, mandibular, and maxillary superimpositions were performed to quantify tooth movements and displacements. RESULTS: There were no statistically significant T1 between-group differences in crowding or in the SNA, SNB, ANB, and MPA angles. Analyses of covariance, controlling for statistically significant (P<0.05) differences in T1 mandibular incisor position, showed that mandibular first premolars extractions produced greater (1.6mm) mandibular incisor retraction than second premolar extractions. The mandibular first molars were protracted significantly more (0.7mm) after the second premolar than the first premolar extractions. Within-group changes of the MPA, between-group differences in the changes in MPA, and the amount of vertical eruption of the maxillary and mandibular molars were not significantly different between the 2 extraction patterns. CONCLUSIONS: Extraction of mandibular second premolars enhances Class II molar correction, with greater mesial first molar movement and less distal incisor movement. Neither extraction pattern has an effect on the MPA or the vertical dimension (ie, there was no "wedge effect").

published proceedings

  • Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop

author list (cited authors)

  • George, S. M., Campbell, P. M., Tadlock, L. P., Schneiderman, E., & Buschang, P. H.

citation count

  • 6

complete list of authors

  • George, Sarah M||Campbell, Phillip M||Tadlock, Larry P||Schneiderman, Emet||Buschang, Peter H

publication date

  • March 2021