Solidarity among the poor Academic Article uri icon


  • We conduct a field experiment with low-income subjects in Dallas, Texas. We examine voluntary, informal risk sharing using a visual representation of the solidarity game developed for low-literacy populations. We find substantially more 'fixed gift to loser' behavior and less 'egotistical' behavior than in previous studies. Individuals who display 'egotistical' behavior are more risk tolerant. The amount of the conditional gifts is positively related to age, income, and connection to the community. However, trust and empathy, which are commonly discussed as drivers for solidarity, are not significantly related to the amount given. 2014 Elsevier B.V.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • de Oliveira, A., Eckel, C. C., & Croson, R.

citation count

  • 6

complete list of authors

  • de Oliveira, Angela CM||Eckel, Catherine C||Croson, Rachel TA

publication date

  • May 2014