In this chapter, the notion of quantum superposition of states is introduced through the example of a polarized photon. This brings out the novel feature that the state of the system depends on how the experiment is set up. The paradoxical consequences of quantum superposition, such as a cat can be simultaneously dead and alive, are also discussed. This is the essence of the famous Schrdingers cat paradox. This description motivates another important consequence of quantum mechanical description of the multiple objects, namely, their ability to exist in an entangled state. The properties of the two objects can remain entangled no matter how far away they are from each other and thus have the ability to influence each other. After discussing these aspects of quantum mechanics, the application of quantum entanglement to novel phenomena of quantum teleportation and quantum swapping are presented.