- Procedural learning and memory involve the acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval of individual representations that are behaviorally expressed in an inflexible manner. Acquisition of stimulus-response and stimulus-affect associations represents prominent forms of procedural learning. Extensive evidence indicates that these forms of procedural learning are mediated by relatively independent neural systems that contain the dorsal striatum and amygdala as primary components, respectively. This article provides a brief description of evidence implicating the dorsal striatum and amygdala in procedural learning and memory, focusing on studies employing brain lesion and pharmacological approaches in lower animals. 2009 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.