Cancer Health Empowerment for Living without Pain (Ca-HELP): study design and rationale for a tailored education and coaching intervention to enhance care of cancer-related pain. Academic Article uri icon


  • BACKGROUND: Cancer-related pain is common and under-treated. This article describes a study designed to test the effectiveness of a theory-driven, patient-centered coaching intervention to improve cancer pain processes and outcomes. METHODS/DESIGN: The Cancer Health Empowerment for Living without Pain (Ca-HELP) Study is an American Cancer Society sponsored randomized trial conducted in Sacramento, California. A total of 265 cancer patients with at least moderate pain severity (Worst Pain Numerical Analog Score > or =4 out of 10) or pain-related impairment (Likert score > or = 3 out of 5) were randomly assigned to receive tailored education and coaching (TEC) or educationally-enhanced usual care (EUC); 258 received at least one follow-up assessment. The TEC intervention is based on social-cognitive theory and consists of 6 components (assess, correct, teach, prepare, rehearse, portray). Both interventions were delivered over approximately 30 minutes just prior to a scheduled oncology visit. The majority of visits (56%) were audio-recorded for later communication coding. Follow-up data including outcomes related to pain severity and impairment, self-efficacy for pain control and for patient-physician communication, functional status and well-being, and anxiety were collected at 2, 6, and 12 weeks. DISCUSSION: Building on social cognitive theory and pilot work, this study aims to test the hypothesis that a brief, tailored patient activation intervention will promote better cancer pain care and outcomes. Analyses will focus on the effects of the experimental intervention on pain severity and impairment (primary outcomes); self-efficacy and quality of life (secondary outcomes); and relationships among processes and outcomes of cancer pain care. If this model of coaching by lay health educators proves successful, it could potentially be implemented widely at modest cost. TRIAL REGISTRATION: [Clinical Trials Identifier: NCT00283166].

published proceedings

  • BMC Cancer

author list (cited authors)

  • Kravitz, R. L., Tancredi, D. J., Street, R. L., Kalauokalani, D., Grennan, T., Wun, T., ... Franks, P.

citation count

  • 18

complete list of authors

  • Kravitz, Richard L||Tancredi, Daniel J||Street, Richard L||Kalauokalani, Donna||Grennan, Tim||Wun, Ted||Slee, Christina||Evans Dean, Dionne||Lewis, Linda||Saito, Naomi||Franks, Peter

publication date

  • September 2009