Proteomic analysis of Drosophila CLOCK complexes identifies rhythmic interactions with SAGA and Tip60 complex component NIPPED-A
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Circadian clocks keep time via ~ 24 h transcriptional feedback loops. In Drosophila, CLOCK-CYCLE (CLK-CYC) activators and PERIOD-TIMELESS (PER-TIM) repressors are feedback loop components whose transcriptional status varies over a circadian cycle. Although changes in the state of activators and repressors has been characterized, how their status is translated to transcriptional activity is not understood. We used mass spectrometry to identify proteins that interact with GFP-tagged CLK (GFP-CLK) in fly heads at different times of day. Many expected and novel interacting proteins were detected, of which several interacted rhythmically and were potential regulators of protein levels, activity or transcriptional output. Genes encoding these proteins were tested to determine if they altered circadian behavior via RNAi knockdown in clock cells. The NIPPED-A protein, a scaffold for the SAGA and Tip60 histone modifying complexes, interacts with GFP-CLK as transcription is activated, and reducing Nipped-A expression lengthens circadian period. RNAi analysis of other SAGA complex components shows that the SAGA histone deubiquitination (DUB) module lengthened period similarly to Nipped-A RNAi knockdown and weakened rhythmicity, whereas reducing Tip60 HAT expression drastically weakened rhythmicity. These results suggest that CLK-CYC binds NIPPED-A early in the day to promote transcription through SAGA DUB and Tip60 HAT activity.
author list (cited authors)
Mahesh, G., Rivas, G., Caster, C., Ost, E. B., Amunugama, R., Jones, R., Allen, D. L., & Hardin, P. E.