Oxidative damage to urinary proteins from the GRMD dog and mdx mouse as biomarkers of dystropathology in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
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Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal, X-chromosome linked muscle-wasting disease affecting about 1 in 3500-6000 boys worldwide. Myofibre necrosis and subsequent loss of muscle mass are due to several molecular sequelae, such as inflammation and oxidative stress. We have recently shown increased neutrophils, highly reactive oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl) generation by myeloperoxidase (MPO), and associated oxidative stress in muscle from the GRMD dog and mdx mouse models for DMD. These findings have led us to hypothesise that generation of HOCl by myeloperoxidase released from neutrophils has a significant role in dystropathology. Since access to muscle from DMD patients is limited, the aim of this study was to develop methods to study this pathway in urine. Using immunoblotting to measure markers of protein oxidation, we show increased labelling of proteins with antibodies to dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNP, oxidative damage) and DiBrY (halogenation by reactive oxidants from myeloperoxidase) in GRMD and mdx urine. A strong positive correlation was observed between DiBrY labelling in dog urine and muscle. A strong positive correlation was also observed when comparing DNP and DiBrY labelling (in muscle and urine) to markers of dystropathology (plasma creatine kinase) and neutrophil presence (muscle MPO). Our results indicate the presence of neutrophil mediated oxidative stress in both models, and suggest that urine is a suitable bio-fluid for the measurement of such biomarkers. These methods could be employed in future studies into the role of neutrophil mediated oxidative stress in DMD and other inflammatory pathologies.
author list (cited authors)
Terrill, J. R., Al-Mshhdani, B. A., Duong, M. N., Wingate, C. D., Abbas, Z., Baustista, A. P., ... Arthur, P. G.
complete list of authors
Terrill, Jessica R||Al-Mshhdani, Basma A||Duong, Marisa N||Wingate, Catherine D||Abbas, Zahra||Baustista, Angelo P||Bettis, Amanda K||Balog-Alvarez, Cynthia J||Kornegay, Joe N||Nghiem, Peter P||Grounds, Miranda D||Arthur, Peter G
editor list (cited editors)