Biological effects of power frequency magnetic fields: Neurochemical and toxicological changes in developing chick embryos
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BACKGROUND: There are several reports that indicate a linkage between exposure to power frequency (50 - 60 Hz) magnetic fields with abnormalities in the early embryonic development of the chicken. The present study was designed to understand whether power frequency electromagnetic fields could act as an environmental insult and invoke any neurochemical or toxicological changes in developing chick embryo model. METHODS: Fertilized chicken eggs were subjected to continuous exposure to magnetic fields (50 Hz) of varying intensities (5, 50 or 100 microT) for a period of up to 15 days. The embryos were taken out of the eggs on day 5, day 10 and day 15. Neurochemical (norepinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine) and amino acid (tyrosine, glutamine and tryptophan) contents were measured, along with an assay of the enzyme glutamine synthetase in the brain. Preliminary toxicological investigations were carried out based on aminotransferases (AST and ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase activities in the whole embryo as well as in the liver. RESULTS: The study revealed that there was a significant increase (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001) in the level of norepinephrine accompanied by a significant decrease (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001) in the tyrosine content in the brain on day 15 following exposure to 5, 50 and 100 microT magnetic fields. There was a significant increase (p < 0.001) in glutamine synthetase activity resulting in the significantly enhanced (p < 0.001) level of glutamine in the brain on day 15 (for 100 microT only). The possible mechanisms for these alterations are discussed. Further, magnetic fields had no effect on the levels of tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the brain. Similarly, there was no effect on the activity of either aminotransferases or lactate dehydrogenase in the whole embryo or liver due to magnetic field exposure. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these studies we conclude that magnetic field-induced changes in norepinephrine levels might help explain alterations in the circadian rhythm, observed during magnetic field stress. Also, the enhanced level of glutamine can act as a contributing factor for developmental abnormalities.
author list (cited authors)
Rajendra, P., Sujatha, H. N., Devendranath, D., Gunasekaran, B., Sashidhar, R. B., Subramanyam, C., & Channakeshava, ..