IS26-mediated amplification of blaOXA-1 and blaCTX-M-15 with concurrent outer membrane porin disruption associated with de novo carbapenem resistance in a recurrent bacteraemia cohort.
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BACKGROUND: Approximately half of clinical carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE) isolates lack carbapenem-hydrolysing enzymes and develop carbapenem resistance through alternative mechanisms. OBJECTIVES: To elucidate development of carbapenem resistance mechanisms from clonal, recurrent ESBL-positive Enterobacterales (ESBL-E) bacteraemia isolates in a vulnerable patient population. METHODS: This study investigated a cohort of ESBL-E bacteraemia cases in Houston, TX, USA. Oxford Nanopore Technologies long-read and Illumina short-read sequencing data were used for comparative genomic analysis. Serial passaging experiments were performed on a set of clinical ST131 Escherichia coli isolates to recapitulate in vivo observations. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and qRT-PCR were used to determine copy number and transcript levels of β-lactamase genes, respectively. RESULTS: Non-carbapenemase-producing CRE (non-CP-CRE) clinical isolates emerged from an ESBL-E background through a concurrence of primarily IS26-mediated amplifications of blaOXA-1 and blaCTX-M-1 group genes coupled with porin inactivation. The discrete, modular translocatable units (TUs) that carried and amplified β-lactamase genes mobilized intracellularly from a chromosomal, IS26-bound transposon and inserted within porin genes, thereby increasing β-lactamase gene copy number and inactivating porins concurrently. The carbapenem resistance phenotype and TU-mediated β-lactamase gene amplification were recapitulated by passaging a clinical ESBL-E isolate in the presence of ertapenem. Clinical non-CP-CRE isolates had stable carbapenem resistance phenotypes in the absence of ertapenem exposure. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate IS26-mediated mechanisms underlying β-lactamase gene amplification with concurrent outer membrane porin disruption driving emergence of clinical non-CP-CRE. Furthermore, these amplifications were stable in the absence of antimicrobial pressure. Long-read sequencing can be utilized to identify unique mobile genetic element mechanisms that drive antimicrobial resistance.
author list (cited authors)
Shropshire, W. C., Aitken, S. L., Pifer, R., Kim, J., Bhatti, M. M., Li, X., ... Shelburne, S. A.