Overexpression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and TGF-β3 genes in lung of toxic-inhaled patients Academic Article uri icon


  • Iraq frequently used toxic inhalants during the war with Iran, exposing over 100,000 people to chemical reagents. Bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) is a major pulmonary disease caused by exposure to harmful gases. Recently defect in clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) has been suggested as a mechanism that leads to several lung diseases. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, a cytokine produced by efferocytotic macrophages, suppresses the inflammation and enhances the regeneration of tissue. In this study, the authors compared the expression of these 3 isoforms of TGF-beta at mRNA level in lung biopsies of Iranian victims of chemical gases with lung biopsies of control healthy volunteers. Semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique was used to examine the expression level of TGF-beta isoforms using glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene as an internal control. The results indicated that that levels of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 mRNAs were significantly higher in chemical gas-injured patients than noninjured group (P < .05). Therefore, the authors speculate that TGF-beta1 and TGFbeta3, but not TGF-beta2, secretion is a result of efficient efferocytosis in chemically injured patients, playing a protective role by improving airway remodeling and lung homeostasis in this group. These properties of TGF-beta are consistent with long-time survival of chemical-injured people suffering from BO.

author list (cited authors)

  • Zarin, A. A., Behmanesh, M., Tavallaei, M., Shohrati, M., & Ghanei, M.

citation count

  • 27

publication date

  • May 2010