Development of Crash Modification Factors for Uncontrolled Pedestrian Crossing Treatments Academic Article uri icon


  • The objective of this study was to develop crash modification factors for four treatment types: rectangular rapid-flashing beacon (RRFB), pedestrian hybrid beacon (PHB), pedestrian refuge island (RI), and advance yield or stop markings and signs (AS). From 14 cities throughout the United States, 975 treatment and comparison sites were selected. Most of the treatment sites were selected at intersections on urban, multilane streets, because these locations present a high risk for pedestrian crashes and are where countermeasures typically are needed most. For each treatment site, relevant data were collected on the treatment characteristics, traffic, geometric, and roadway variables, and the pedestrian crashes and other crash types that occurred at each site. Cross-sectional regression models and beforeafter empirical Bayesian analysis techniques were used to determine the crash effects of each treatment type. All four of the treatment types were found to be associated with reductions in pedestrian crash risk, compared with the reductions at untreated sites. PHBs were associated with the greatest reduction of pedestrian crash risk (55% reduction), followed by RRFBs (47% reduction), RIs (32% reduction), and AS (25% reduction). The results for RRFBs had their basis in a limited sample and must be used with caution.

published proceedings


author list (cited authors)

  • Zegeer, C., Lyon, C., Srinivasan, R., Persaud, B., Lan, B. o., Smith, S., ... Sundstrom, C.

citation count

  • 18

complete list of authors

  • Zegeer, Charlie||Lyon, Craig||Srinivasan, Raghavan||Persaud, Bhagwant||Lan, Bo||Smith, Sarah||Carter, Daniel||Thirsk, Nathan J||Zegeer, John||Ferguson, Erin||Van Houten, Ron||Sundstrom, Carl

publication date

  • January 2017