Crash Modification Factors for the Flashing Yellow Arrow Treatment at Signalized Intersections Academic Article uri icon


  • This paper presents the results of an evaluation of the flashing yellow arrow (FYA) treatment using data from signalized intersections in Nevada, North Carolina, Oklahoma, and Oregon. The evaluation method was an empirical Bayes before–after analysis. The treatments were divided into seven categories depending on the phasing system in the before period (permissive, protected–permissive, or protected), phasing system in the after period (FYA permissive or FYA protected–permissive), the number of roads where the FYA was implemented (one road or both roads), and the number of legs at the intersections (three or four). The first five treatment categories involved permissive or protected–permissive phasing in the before period. Intersections in these five treatment categories experienced a reduction in the primary target crashes under consideration: left turn crashes and left turn with opposing through crashes. The reduction ranged from 15% to 50%, depending on the treatment category. Intersections that had at least one protected left turn phase in the before period and had FYA protected–permissive left turn phase in the after period experienced an increase in left turn crashes and left turn with opposing through crashes, indicating that replacing a fully protected left turn with FYA will likely cause an increase in left turn crashes.

published proceedings

  • Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board

author list (cited authors)

  • Srinivasan, R., Lan, B. o., Carter, D., Smith, S., & Signor, K.

citation count

  • 2

complete list of authors

  • Srinivasan, Raghavan||Lan, Bo||Carter, Daniel||Smith, Sarah||Signor, Kari

publication date

  • December 2018