Hormonal and metabolites responses in Fusarium wilt-susceptible and -resistant watermelon plants during plant-pathogen interactions
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BACKGROUND: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON) causes Fusarium wilt in watermelon. Several disease-resistant watermelon varieties have been developed to combat Fusarium wilt. However, the key metabolites that mount defense responses in these watermelon varieties are unknown. Herein, we analyzed hormones, melatonin, phenolic acids, and amino acid profiles in the leaf tissue of FON zero (0)-resistant (PI-296341, Calhoun Grey, and Charleston Grey) and -susceptible (Sugar Baby) watermelon varieties before and after infection. RESULTS: We found that jasmonic acid-isoleucine (JA-Ile) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) were selectively accumulated in one or more studied resistant varieties upon infection. However, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was only observed in the FON 0 inoculated plants of all varieties on the 16th day of post-inoculation. The melatonin content of PI-296341 decreased upon infection. Conversely, melatonin was only detected in the FON 0 inoculated plants of Sugar Baby and Charleston Grey varieties. On the 16th day of post-inoculation, the lysine content in resistant varieties was significantly reduced, whereas it was found to be elevated in the susceptible variety. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, Me-JA, JA-Ile, melatonin, and lysine may have crucial roles in developing defense responses against the FON 0 pathogen, and IAA can be a biomarker of FON 0 infection in watermelon plants.
author list (cited authors)
Kasote, D. M., Jayaprakasha, G. K., Ong, K., Crosby, K. M., & Patil, B. S.