An experimental program has been undertaken to assess both peak and residual shear strength parameters of statically compacted, moderate plasticity clayey soil under suction-controlled conditions, resulting in a defined set of suction-dependent peak and residual failure envelopes over a relatively wide range of suction states, from 0 to 300 kPa. The experimental program was accomplished in a servo/suction-controlled ring shear apparatus, which is suitable for testing unsaturated soils under large deformations via the axis-translation technique. Test results substantiate the crucial role that has been observed to be played by the imposed matric suction on the residual shear strength of compacted clayey soils. For the range of net normal stress (0-200 kPa) and matric suction (0-300 kPa) states investigated, the increase in either peak or residual shear strength, with increasing matric suction, was found to be manifestly nonlinear. Furthermore, a distinct correspondence was observed between the nonlinearity of the peak shear strength envelope, with respect to increasing matric suction, and the soil-water retention properties of the clayey soil. Results, in general, suggest that a conceptual residual shear strength framework for unsaturated soils, similar to that postulated for peak shear strength, can eventually be formulated as more experimental evidence of this kind is made available.